Dear GANM community,
In this week’s edition of the GANM library research brief we turn our attention to a few articles that discuss and seek to understand various aspects of health and healthcare. From microbiome transfer for treating obesity in children to community transmission of rotavirus and effectiveness of a vaccine, and the importance of time-to-treatment initiation in patients with cancer all of these articles have the potential to change overall health outcomes and improve quality of life.
Leong, K. S., Jayasinghe, T. N., Wilson, B. C., Derraij, J. G., & Cutfield, W. S. (2020). Effects of fecal microbiome transfer in adolescents with obesity: the gut bugs randomized controlled trial. JAMA Network Open. 3(12):e2030415. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30415
A fecal microbiome transfer or FMT for short is becoming a common treatment for reoccurring gut infections across the globe. Recently, researchers began wondering if FMT would lead to weight loss among adolescents with obesity. In this randomized controlled trial 87 adolescents with obesity were included. At a timepoint of 6 weeks there was no association between weight loss and FMT. At week 26 there was a reduction in android-to-gynoid fat ratio. Overall, FMT it was concluded that FMT alone is not an effective treatment for weight loss.
Bennett, A., Pollock, L., Bar-Zeev, N., Lewnard, J. A., & Cunliffe, N. A. (2020). Community transmission of rotavirus infection in a vaccinated population in Blantyre, Malawi: A prospective household cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30597-1
What is the effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccine in terms community transmission of rotavirus for household contacts? Overall, 196 case household and 55 control households we included in this study. The attack rate was 65% and 5% for rotavirus infection and clinical disease, respectively. Asymptomatic infection was also quite common. The estimated vaccine effectiveness was 39%. The rotavirus vaccine has the potential to decrease transmission among household contacts and therefore should be considered in health assessments of individuals.
Cone, E. B., Marchese, M., Paciotti, M., Nguyen, D. D., & Trinh, Q. D. (2020). Assessment of time-to-treatment initiation and survival in a cohort of patients with common cancers. JAMA Network Open. 3(12):e2030072. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30072
Due to the current pandemic resource limitations have caused a delayed treatment time for patients who have time sensitive illness, such as cancer treatment. This article sought to evaluate the association between increased time to treatment and mortality in patients with common cancers. This cohort study included 2,241,706 patients with various types of cancer of which all were associated with increased time to treatment. Patients with colon and lung cancer had the highest mortality associated with increased time to treatment. Therefore, this supports timelier definitive treatment for intermediate- and high-risk cancers.